Biota of the Moonshine Archipelago/Birds

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< Biota of the Moonshine Archipelago

The Moonshine Archipelago is dominated by species from the taxonomic class Aves - otherwise known as birds. Birds are thought to have inhabited the islands since they were formed 40 million years ago.

The archipelago is noted for the number of unique species of bird that can be found on the islands - a significant number of whom are flightless.

Key

     Denotes introduced species.

Orders

Order(s): Accipitriformes and Falconiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Aquila guelphii Guelph's Eagle (Aquila guelphii) All islands Least concern
Circus approximans Kāhu (Circus approximans) All islands Least concern

Order: Anseriformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Spatula rhynchotis Kuruwhengi (Spatula rhynchotis) All major islands Least concern
Cygnus sumnerensis Wāna (Cygnus sumnerensis) All islands Least concern

Order: Apterygiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Apteryx aquilonius Northern Kiwi (Apteryx aquilonius) Lunen Island, Brunswich Island Vunerable
Apteryx antarcticus Southern Kiwi (Apteryx antarcticus) Kiranēna Island Vunerable

Order(s): Caprimulgiformes and Strigiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Ninox leucopsis Ruru (Ninox leucopsis) All islands Least concern
Podargus strigoides Tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) All islands Least concern

Order: Charadriiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Charadrius bicinctus Pohowera (Charadrius bicinctus) Coastal areas and adjacent off shore islands Near threatened
Charadrius obscurus Tūturiwhatu (Charadrius obscurus) Tidal estuaries Near threatened
Anarhynchus frontalis Wrybill (Anarhynchus frontalis) Tidal estuaries Vunerable

Order(s): Columbiformes and Galliformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae Kererū (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) Wooded islands north of 52°30'S. Near threatened
Hemiphaga chathamensis Parea (Hemiphaga chathamensis) Wooded islands south of 52°30'S. Vunerable
Columba livia Rock dove (Columba livia) Urban and agricultural areas Not evaluated
Introduced 1850s. Considered a pest.

Order: Coraciiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Dacelo leachii Blue-winged kingfisher (Dacelo leachii) Brunswich Island Least concern
Non-native
Introduced in the 1860s
Todiramphus sanctus Kōtare (Todiramphus sanctus) All islands. Least concern Migrates northward in winter.

Order: Cuculiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Pīpīwharauroa (Chrysococcyx lucidus) All islands. Least concern Migrates northward in winter.

Order: Gruiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Gallirallus philippensis Buff-banded rail (Gallirallus philippensis) All islands Least concern
Porphyrio hochstetteri Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri) Numerous smaller offshore islands + (tbd) Endangered
Gallirallus australis Weka (Gallirallus australis) Numerous smaller offshore islands + (tbd) Vunerable

Order: Passeriformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Coracias lathamii Bell-magpie (Coracias lathamii) Brunswich Island Not evaluated
Non-native
Introduced from mainland Kartumia in the 1860s. Now considered an invasive species.
Heteralocha acutirostris Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris) All islands Critically endangered
Anthornis melanura Korimako (Anthornis melanura) Lowland and mid-altitude native forests Least concern
Gracula picata Mudlark (Gracula picata) All islands Least concern
Mohoua novaeseelandiae Pipipi (Mohoua novaeseelandiae)
Distribution by ecoregion
Least concern Lowland and mid-altitude native forests
Rhipidura fuliginosa Pīwakawaka (Rhipidura fuliginosa)
Distribution by ecoregion
Least concern
Mohoua albicilla Pōpokotea (Mohoua albicilla)
Distribution by ecoregion
Least concern
Gerygone igata Riroriro (Gerygone igata)
Distribution by ecoregion
Least concern Lowland and mid-altitude woodland
Philesturnus rufusater Tīeke (Philesturnus rufusater) Lowland and coastal forests Near threatened
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae Tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) Lowland and mid-altitude native forests, remnant woodland, urban areas Least concern

Order(s): Pelecaniformes and Suliformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Phalacrocorax varius Kāruhiruhi (Phalacrocorax varius) Coastal rivers and lakes Least concern
Ardea modesta Kōtuku (Ardea modesta) Coastal and adjacent waters north of 52°30'S. Least concern
Egretta sacra Reef heron (Egretta sacra)  New Ingerland:
  • 🌺 Ecoregion I: Far North
  • 🌿 Ecoregion II: Northern Slopes
  • ☀ Ecoregion VI: Leeward Coast
  • 🌦 Ecoregion V: Windward Coast
Least concern

Order: Procellariiformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Diomedea sanfordi Toroa (Diomedea sanfordi) Offshore islands (tbd) Vunerable

Order: Psittaciformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Nestor meridionalis Kākā (Nestor meridionalis) Lowland and mid-altitude native forests Endangered
Nestor notabilis Kea (Nestor notabilis) Upland forests and subalpine scrublands Endangered

Order: Sphenisciformes

Species Distribution Conservation
status
Notes
Megadyptes antipodes Hoiho (Megadyptes antipodes) Coke Archipelago, Kiranēna Island and surrounds Endangered
Eudyptula minor Kororā (Eudyptula minor) All coastal and adjacent waters Least concern
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Tawaki (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus) Kiranēna Island and surrounds Vunerable

See also

References and notes